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  StarMed evidence database
External clinical evidence can be viewed using the links next to the studies below or by using our online evidence database.

database features studies covering a range of clinical scenarios and each study entry includes a brief summary abstract and further categorisation and tagging so you can search for studies based on their clinical setting, author, journal, date and any key words. We will continue to add new posts as further studies are released - so keep checking for the latest supporting material.

Key studies discussing optimal ventilator settings and CO2 rebreathing topics are extensively discussed in our StarMed study portfolio.

        Evidence for CaStar hoods used for treatment of COVID-19
Exhaled air dispersion during noninvasive ventilation via helmets and a total facemask
Hui DS, Chow BK, Lo T, Ng SS, Ko FW, Gin T, Chan MT
Chest. 2015 May;147(5):1336-43

Minimise nosocomial spread of 2019-nCoV when treating acute respiratory failure
Cabrini L, Landoni G, Zangrillo A
Lancet. 2020 Feb 29;395(10225):685

Feasibility and Physiological Effects of Prone Positioning in Non-Intubated Patients With Acute Respiratory Failure Due to COVID-19 (PRON-COVID): A Prospective Cohort Study
Coppo A , Bellani G , Winterton D , Di Pierro M , Soria A , Faverio P, Cairo M, Mori S , Messinesi G , Contro E , Bonfanti P , Benini A , Valsecchi MG , Antolini L, Foti G
Lancet Respir Med. 2020 Aug;8(8):765-774

COVID-19 multidisciplinary high dependency unit: the Milan model
Aliberti S, Amati F, Pappalettera M, Di Pasquale M, D'Adda A, Mantero M, Gramegna A, Simonetta E, Oneta AM, Privitera E, Gori A, Bozzi G, Peyvandi F, Minoia F, Filocamo G, Abbruzzese C, Vicenzi M, Tagliabue P, Alongi S, Blasi F
Respir Res. 2020 Oct 9;21(1):260

Helmet CPAP to Treat Acute Hypoxemic Respiratory Failure in Patients with COVID-19: A Management Strategy Proposal
Radovanovic D , Rizzi M ,  Pini S ,  Saad M , Chiumello DA ,  Santus P
J Clin Med. 2020 Apr 22;9(4):1191

Helmet Continuous Positive Airway Pressure and Prone Positioning: A Proposal for an Early Management of COVID-19 Patients
Longhini F, Bruni A, Garofalo E, Navalesi P, Grasselli G, Cosentini R, Foti G, Mattei A, Ippolito M, Accurso G, Vitale F, Cortegiani A, Gregoretti C
Pulmonology. Jul-Aug 2020;26(4):186-191

Protecting Healthcare Workers From SARS-CoV-2 Infection: Practical Indications
Ferioli M, Cisternino C, Leo V, Pisani L, Palange P, Nava S
Eur Respir Rev. 2020 Apr 3;29(155):200068

The "Helmet Bundle" in COVID-19 Patients Undergoing Non Invasive Ventilation
Lucchini A, Giani M, Isgrò S, Rona R, Foti G
Intensive Crit Care Nurs. 2020 Jun;58:102859

  Evidence for CaStar, CaStar Up, Ventukit and Ventukit Up openable hoods for CPAP therapy 

    Continuous Positive Airway Pressure for Treatment of Postoperative Hypoxemia. A Randomized Controlled Trial
Squadrone V, Coha M, Cerutti E, Schellino MM, Biolino P, Occella P, Belloni G, Vilianis G, Fiore G, Cavallo F, Ranieri VM
JAMA. 2005 Feb 2;293(5):589-95
    Early CPAP prevents evolution of acute lung injury in patients with hematologic malignancy
Squadrone V, Massaia M, Bruno B, Marmont F, Falda M, Bagna C, Bertone S, Filippini C, Slutsky AS, Vitolo U, Boccadoro M, Ranieri VM.
Intensive Care Med. 2010 Oct;36(10):1666-74
    Helmet continuous positive airway pressure vs oxygen therapy to improve oxygenation in community-acquired pneumonia: a randomized, controlled trial
Cosentini R, Brambilla AM, Aliberti S, Bignamini A, Nava S, Maffei A, Martinotti R, Tarsia P, Monzani V, Pelosi P.
Chest. 2010 Jul;138(1):114-20
    Helmet CPAP vs. oxygen therapy in severe hypoxemic respiratory failure due to pneumonia
Brambilla AM, Aliberti S, Prina E, Nicoli F, Forno MD, Nava S, Ferrari G, Corradi F, Pelosi P, Bignamini A, Tarsia P, Cosentini R.
Intensive Care Med. 2014 Jul;40(7):942-9

Evidence for CaStar R Next hood for non-invasive ventilation (NIV)
    New versus Conventional Helmet for Delivering Noninvasive Ventilation: A Physiologic, Crossover Randomized Study in Critically Ill Patients
Olivieri C, Longhini F, Cena T, Cammarota G, Vaschetto R, Messina A, Berni P, Magnani C, Della Corte F, Navalesi P
Anesthesiology. 2016 Jan;124(1):101-108 

    Oronasal mask versus helmet in acute hypercapnic respiratory failure
Pisani L, Mega C, Vaschetto R, Bellone A, Scala R, Cosentini R, Musti M, Del Forno M, Grassi M, Fasano L, Navalesi P, Nava S
Eur Respir J. 2015 Mar;45(3):691-9 

    Comparative evaluation of three interfaces for non-invasive ventilation: a randomized cross-over design physiologic study on healthy volunteers
Vaschetto R, De Jong A, Conseil M, Galia F, Mahul M, Coisel Y, Prades A, Navalesi P, Jaber S.
Crit Care. 2014 Jan 3;18(2):R2 

    Bench comparative evaluation of a new generation and standard helmet for delivering non-invasive ventilation
Olivieri C, Costa R, Spinazzola G, Ferrone G, Longhini F, Cammarota G, Conti G, Navalesi P.
Intensive Care Med. 2013 Apr;39(4):734-8 

    New setting of neurally adjusted ventilatory assist during noninvasive ventilation through a helmet
Cammarota G, Longhini F, Perucca R, Ronco C, Colombo D, Messina A, Vaschetto R, Navalesi P.
Anesthesiology. 2016 Dec;125(6):1181-1189




  Evidence for CaStar R and CaStar R Up openable hoods for non-invasive ventilation (NIV)   
    Comparison of helmet and facial mask during noninvasive ventilation in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a randomized controlled study
Özlem ÇG, Ali A, Fatma U, Mehtap T, Şaziye Ş.
Turk J Med Sci. 2015;45(3):600-6

    An optimized set-up for helmet noninvasive ventilation improves pressure support delivery and patient-ventilator interaction
Mojoli F, Iotti GA, Currò I, Pozzi M, Via G, Venti A, Braschi A.
Intensive Care Med. 2013 Jan;39(1):38-44
    Helmet with specific settings versus facemask for noninvasive ventilation
Vargas F, Thille A, Lyazidi A, Campo FR, Brochard L.
Crit Care Med. 2009 Jun;37(6):1921-8
    Comparison of patient-ventilator interfaces based on their computerized effective dead space
Fodil R, Lellouche F, Mancebo J, Sbirlea-Apiou G, Isabey D, Brochard L, Louis B.
Intensive Care Med. 2011 Feb;37(2):257-62
    Carbon dioxide rebreathing during non-invasive ventilation delivered by helmet: a bench study
Mojoli F, Iotti GA, Gerletti M, Lucarini C, Braschi A.
Intensive Care Med. 2008 Aug;34(8):1454-60
    New treatment of acute hypoxemic respiratory failure: noninvasive pressure support ventilation delivered by helmet--a pilot controlled trial
Antonelli M, Conti G, Pelosi P, Gregoretti C, Pennisi MA, Costa R, Severgnini P, Chiaranda M, Proietti R.
Crit Care Med. 2002 Mar;30(3):602-8
    Noninvasive ventilation by helmet or face mask in immunocompromised patients: a case-control study
Rocco M, Dell'Utri D, Morelli A, Spadetta G, Conti G, Antonelli M, Pietropaoli P.
Chest. 2004 Nov;126(5):1508-15
    Noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation with different interfaces in patients with respiratory failure after abdominal surgery: a matched-control study
Conti G, Cavaliere F, Costa R, Craba A, Catarci S, Festa V, Proietti R, Antonelli M.
Respir Care. 2007 Nov;52(11):1463-71
    Noninvasive ventilation after early extubation in patients recovering from hypoxemic acute respiratory failure: a single-centre feasibility study
Vaschetto R Turucz E, Dellapiazza F, Guido S, Colombo D, Cammarota G, Della Corte F, Antonelli M, Navalesi P.
Intensive Care Med. 2012 Oct;38(10):1599-606. Epub 2012 Jul 24






  Evidence for CaStar Infant hood for CPAP therapy 
    Continuous positive airway pressure with helmet verses mask in infants with bronchiolities: an RCT
Chidini G, Piastra M, Marchesi T, De Luca D, Napilitano, Salvo I, Wolfler A, Pelosi P, Damasco M, Conti G, Calderini E
Pediatric. 2015 Apri:135(4):e868-75
    Noninvasive continuous positive airway pressure in acute respiratory failure: helmet versus facial mask
Chidini G, Calderini E, Cesana BM, Gandini C, Prandi E, Pelosi P.
Pediatrics. 2010 Aug;126(2):e330-6

    Continuous positive airway pressure with modified helmet for treatment of hypoxemic acute respiratory failure in infants and a preschool population: A feasibility study
Codazzi D, Nacoti M, Passoni M, Bonanomi E, Sperti LR, Fumagalli R.
Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2006 Sep;7(5):455-60

    Treatment of acute hypoxemic respiratory failure with continuous positive airway pressure delivered by a new pediatric helmet in comparison with a standard full face mask: a prospective pilot study
Chidini G, Calderini E, Pelosi P.
Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2010 Jul;11(4):502-8

    Helmet-delivered continuous positive airway pressure with heliox in respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis
Mayordomo-Colunga J, Medina A, Rey C, Concha A, Los Arcos M, Menéndez S.
Acta Paediatr. 2010 Feb;99(2):308-11

    What are the current indications for noninvasive ventilation in children?
Calderini E, Chidini G, Pelosi P.
Curr Opin Anaesthesiol. 2010 Jun;23(3):368-74





  Evidence for CaStar Ped hood for NIV therapy
    Noninvasive pressure-support ventilation in immunocompromised children with ARDS: a feasibility study
Piastra M, De Luca D, Pietrini D, Pulitanò S, D'Arrigo S, Mancino A, Conti G.
Intensive Care Med. 2009 Aug;35(8):1420-7
    Treatment of acute respiratory failure by helmet-delivered non-invasive pressure support ventilation in children with acute leukemia: a pilot study
Piastra M, Antonelli M, Chiaretti A, Polidori G, Polidori L, Conti G.
Intensive Care Med. 2004 Mar;30(3):472-6




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